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Sodium perchlorate
488px-Sodium perchlorate.svg

Sodium perchlorate is an inorganic salt of sodium, with the chemical formula NaClO4.

PropertiesEdit

ChemicalEdit

Sodium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizer, albeit it's not as powerful as its potassium counterpart due to its hygroscopicity.

It will react with a strong mineral acid, such as hydrochloric acid, to form perchloric acid.

NaClO4(aq) + HCl(aq) ↔ NaCl (aq) + HClO4 (aq)

PhysicalEdit

Sodium perchlorate is a white crystalline salt. It is hygroscopic, forming a monohydrate. It is highly soluble in water, 209 g/100 ml at 25 °C.

AvailabilityEdit

Sodium perchlorate used to be available, but now it's restricted in Europe. Perchlorates can still be purchased from some online vendors, but in limited quantities. Purchases using some form of identification have a good chance of being tracked by a government agency. In the US, perchlorates are still widely available through pyrotechnic companies as well as lab suppliers. Perchlorates are usually better made than bought, if one can find the correct electrodes.

PreparationEdit

Sodium perchlorate is produced by anodic oxidation of sodium chlorate (which in turn is made from sodium chloride) at an inert electrode, such as platinum.[1]

ClO3− (aq) + H2O (l) → ClO4− (aq) + H2 (g)

However when using platinum as an anode, its wear rate will increase as the chlorate concentration starts to decrease, and below 50g/l it may be excessive; high temperatures also increase its wear rate. Wear rates from manufacturers have been reported as 3 to 6 grams of Pt per ton of sodium perchlorate.[2]

ProjectsEdit

HandlingEdit

SafetyEdit

Sodium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizer. It should be kept away from any open flame and organic substances. Unlike the chlorate salt, perchlorate mixtures with sulfur are stable.

It is moderately toxic, as in large amounts it interferes with iodine uptake into the thyroid gland.

StorageEdit

NaClO4 should be stored in closed bottles, sealed preferable, as it is slightly hygroscopic. It must kept away from any strong acidic vapors, to prevent it from releasing perchloric acid, a fire and explosion hazard.

DisposalEdit

Sodium perchlorate should not be poured down the drain or dumped into environment. It must be neutralized with a reducing agent first.

ReferencesEdit

  1. http://www.utahpyro.org/compositions/HowToMakeSodiumPerchlorate.pdf
  2. http://www.oocities.org/capecanaveral/campus/5361/chlorate/naperchl.html

Relevant Sciencemadness threadsEdit

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