Lithium hydroxide is a solid white inorganic compound, with the chemical formula LiOH.
- 2 LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O
Because of its low density and it's ability to absorb it's weight of carbon dioxide, anhydrous lithium hydroxide is used as a chemical scrubber on submarines and space vehicles.
Lithium hydroxide is a a white hygroscopic solid. It is the weakest alkali metal hydroxides. The density of LiOH is 1.46 g/cm3 (anhydrous) and 1.51 g/cm3 (monohydrate). It is soluble in water and slightly less in ethanol. Lithium hydroxide melts at 462 °C.
Corroded lithium batteries contain a mixture of lithium oxide, lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate. Adding a solution of calcium hydroxide will convert the carbonate to hydroxide.
Lithium hydroxide is sold by chemical suppliers.
- Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3
Lithium oxide will slowly convert to lithium hydroxide in moist air.
- 2 Li2O + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH
The presence of carbon dioxide in moist air will result in lithium carbonate.
Another way is to simply add lithium metal extracted from alkali batteries in water.
- 2 Li + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH + H2
However this method consumes the expensive metal.
- Make lithium chloride
Lithium hydroxide is corrosive to all tissues and it must be handled with proper protection for alkali hydroxides.
In closed thick PE bottles, away from corrosive vapors and moisture.
Best to try to recycle it.